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– by Sharifah Nurul Akhilah Syed Mustorpha, Mohd Nadzri Jaafar, Mat Naim Abdullah @ Mohd Asmoni, Azizah Ismail and Ahmad Ariffian Bujang


Real estate development is widely regarded as a creative process focused on value added. In an effort to remain competitive, there has been an increasing need in organizations to better understand the development element as a whole as there has a continuous innovation in investment instruments to gain exposure to real estate returns. Land bank joining this list as having the potential to give higher returns. This paper explores the key criteria of land banking strategy in an effort to achieve land bank development success. The first phase included a thorough review of literatures relevant to the topics meanwhile the second phase was a survey of selected developers. Key criteria constructs were then identified using content analysis methodology and an inductive coding technique in literature review phase while the research generally uses a Delphi method as a research technique. The most significant finding is the identification of key criteria from the process of literature review and the perspectives of developers. Plus, there appears to be much variance with respect to what exactly is encompassed by investment strategy, one of the most widely cited criteria and little detail of specific implementation tactics. This piece of work serves as a corroborative evidence to improve the satisfaction of industry players, policy makers and investors. The paper ends by recommending that the study be repeated in Malaysia in the context of the improved framework for its most optimum implementation.

Keywords: Investment, land bank, land development, criteria, stakeholders



– by Rocel A. Apolonio


Research studies in sustainable consumption, production and agriculture emphasized the amount of food losses and wastage generated in the various food supply chain stages. Food waste in the consumption stage is evident in fast-food industries like restaurants, households, and institutions. In schools, much of the literature points out that food waste is a huge predicament since it accounts for the majority of the aggregate school waste. Thus, this paper was thereby undertaken to investigate the extent of food wastage, focusing on select public schools in a city in the National Capital Region. To establish such, the amount of food waste from the aggregate school waste was audited. Demographic variables like age structure and time of break were put under investigation to establish whether such variables indicate any relationship with the amount of food waste. Adopting a descriptive-correlational research design, findings revealed that food waste was not a major component of the aggregate school waste since school canteen management in these public schools implements a “measured serving” system. In view of the relationship between time of recess and amount of food waste, statistics showed that there is no significant relationship between the variables. The findings deviated from extant literature about the impact of scheduling recess before lunch. In regard to age structure, food waste per student in high school was lesser than food waste per student in elementary school.

Keywords: Food loss, food waste, sustainability, waste audit, waste generation rates



– by Wan Zuriea Wan Ismail and Mat Naim Abdullah @ Mohd Asmoni


In addition to providing space for residents, intensive green roofs or rooftop gardens enhance a building’s aesthetic value and contribute towards its environmental performance. To deal with excessive carbon dioxide emissions, intensive green roofs have the potential to contribute through a carbon sequestration strategy with plants as one of its key components. The estimation of the carbon sequestered amount is significant, because it will be used as a benchmark to assess and optimize the potential of intensive green roofs for carbon sequestration. Researchers have used various methods to estimate the amount of carbon sequestration required whether it involves a single tree, plantation, forest, urban forest, or urban landscape. However, the methods used to estimate carbon sequestration has received relatively less attention from local researchers. Therefore, this review paper assesses the methods used for estimating carbon sequestration that can be adopted. A review of the literature on carbon sequestration estimation methods showed that the MyCREST carbon sequestration calculator is the most suitable method for estimating carbon sequestration due to its unique conditions for intensive green roofs.

Keywords: Carbon sequestration, carbon sequestration calculator, green roofs, building environmental performance, sustainable facilities



– by Eric Jayson V. Asuncion


A good destination image is significant in promoting a product, service or even a destination. The paper seeks to determine the current image of Pasig City and evaluate it using the Multisensory Marketing Model. Data triangulation was done through one on one in-depth interviews with three residents and five non-residents of Pasig city as well as secondary sources (newspaper articles, Pasig city website and Pasig city bookazine). Moreover, NVivo software was utilized for the analysis of the data. Findings revealed that non-residents of Pasig had knowledge about the city either through their relatives and friends residing there, it is the location of their work particularly in the business district-Ortigas Center and the Philippines Stock Exchange, an affair in the school located there and through the news. Best things about the city are their food parks and foods hubs mostly situated in Kapitolyo, infrastructures, the people and celebrations. In contrast, both residents and non-residents found that traffic in the city is a major problem that needs to be addressed. The city is known as the “Green city. The city was advertised frequently through segment features in different programs among local channels and print ads (tarpaulins and posters). Although there is a website and social media like Facebook and Twitter but was often used for announcement of class suspensions. There is an opportunity for the local tourism government to exploit more on this medium to better promote the city as a “Green City”. They can also highlight through this medium the good infrastructures, places, festivals and food hubs that the city can offer. In terms of the use of Multisensory Marketing Model, Pasig City was engaged in Visual, Gustatory and Tactile Marketing strategies. Sight is the most obvious strategy utilized by the city as perceived by the residents and non-residents. The city also engaged in gustatory strategy because of the presence of food hubs, good parks and restaurants around the city. The city government should capitalize more on this strength and develop other barangays near the city hall and market just like Kapitolyo area where other tourists visit for some food adventure. There is also a recommendation for the city to create a jingle that will advertise the city. It can be a sort of novelty that can catch the attention of tourists. Conclusions, management implications and recommendations for future study were also presented.

Keywords: Pasig City, destination image, Multisensory Marketing Model



– by Nurul Faiezah Ngadimin, Abdul Hamid Mar Iman and Rohaya Abdul Jalil


A shopping centre development project brings about a positive change to the community as well as generates a lot of business opportunities which in turn creates more employment and job opportunities for the locals. However, there is no numerical proof regarding employment opportunities generated therefrom. In particular, there was neither assessment nor measurement of employment opportunities generated by a shopping centre development being developed. Therefore, this paper attempts to measure the employment opportunities generated by a proposed shopping centre development project by developing physical parameters for the measurement on the basis of net-lettable area (NLA). A grounded theory method (GTM) is adapted since there is lack of the existing literature on the method or approach of assessment. The GTM with an inductive approach as well as deductive orientation was employed in measuring employment opportunities utilizing data generated from the constant comparative method (CCM). Thus, a CCM-GTM is adopted and six operational shopping centres in Johor Bahru are selected as a comparable group, called CG6. The data of CG6 were constantly compared for their commonalities and variations, thus the trace out to the emerging pattern are found. This study conceptualized the theory of employment generation and derived the employment density equation from a set of employment quotients (EQ). Besides, this paper presented an ideal figure of retail mix classes existing within a shopping centre together with its percentages distribution placement.

Keywords: Grounded theory method, shopping centre, employment, employment density



– by Nurul Fazira Sa’at and Nurul Hana Adi Maimun


The fast-changing housing industry demands the adoption of advanced approaches to valuation for a quick, reliable and accurate result. The traditional approach for forecasting house prices, called the Hedonic Pricing Model (HPM), is problematic given its inaccuracy due to problems with heteroskedasticity and multicollinearity among variables in the model. Recently, there is increasing attention in the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to forecast house prices. AI, through Artificial Neural Network (ANN), addresses the shortcomings of HPM. Hence, this paper aims to critically review previous studies on the ability of ANN as a substituted model for HPM in forecasting house prices. Various secondary sources were involved due to extracting various documentary data. It was concluded that the application of AI-enhanced forecasting is accurate. This was demonstrated through the superior predictive performance of ANN compared to HPM.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Hedonic Pricing Model, house price forecasting



– by Hairul Amirul Harun, Norhidayah Md Yunus, Rasyida Rasul, Ainur Zaireen Zainudin, Siti Radiaton Adawiyah Zakaria and Aminah Mohsin


The Zero Waste Concept is an effective alternative to the management of solid waste that has been implemented in several developed countries to achieve sustainable development. This concept is applied to reducing solid waste generation that can minimize the depletion of natural resources, which in the meantime, to utilizing landfills as the last option in solid waste management. This study was conducted to identify the concept of zero waste used in the selected case study area. In addition, this study is to examine the challenges of the implementation of zero waste concept in the case study area. To in line with the focus of this study, the selected case study involved areas under the administration of Johor Bahru City Council, the local authority that administer most areas in Johor Bahru district. The respondents of this study comprised the representatives from Johor Bahru City Council, Solid Waste Management Corporation and SWM Environment. This study was conducted by interviewing five respondents consisting of Assistant Officer, Deputy Director, Senior Officer and Administration Division who are knowledgeable in managing solid waste in the country, thus responsible for sustainable development achievement. The collected data was analysed qualitatively using the descriptive technique. As a result, this study found there are four factors of challenges in implementing the zero-waste concept in the case study area namely management, financial, enforcement and social behaviour factors. This study can benefit those agencies in facing of challenges to implement the zero-waste concept so that this concept can be appropriately implemented. As such, several recommendations are made at the end of the study to ensure that the concept of zero waste can be implemented in Malaysia to assist the local authorities and other solid waste management agencies in improving their services in future.

Keywords: Zero waste concept, solid waste management, landfill, challenges



– by Wilson Rangga Anthony Jiram, Fauziah Raji, Fatin Aziz and Ibrahim Sipan


The impetus for the study is the growing awareness of the deterioration of livability, particularly in urban environments due to the pressure of imbalance development pattern. An investigation into the views of industry and academia revealed there is a considerable gap in determining the perimeter that predicting the livability of affordable housing scheme in Malaysia. This paper offers the qualitative exploration of the Malaysian affordable housing livability dimensions. The purpose of this case study design study is to explore participant’s views consisting government bodies, public and private universities, and non-governmental organizations with the intent of using this information to develop the conceptual framework of affordable housing livability. This was accomplished by collecting the focus group data to provide a full picture of the extent of coverage of affordable housing livability dimensions. Findings from this qualitative phase will be used to test the dimensions with the sample of affordable housings’ residents. The study reveals that the affordable housing livability is conceptualized as a composite of seven dimensions. Further validation for the derivation of affordable housing livability construct validity is needed to provide adequate exploration. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge in livability studies in terms of dimension construct. Conclusively, the findings can help researchers, planners, policy makers and others in the formulation of housing criteria guidelines for the introducing of livable housing as part of the effort to incorporate these features into any new housing projects, to improve the quality of life of in urban environments.

Keywords: Livability, affordable housing, semantic network, content validity